Mental Disorders


Personality Disorder

Personality Disorders: Types, Causes, Symptoms, and Treatment.

Personality Disorder

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What Are Personality Disorders?

What Are Personality Disorders?

Personality disorders are patterns of inflexible thinking and behaving that differ significantly from societal and cultural norms. This causes significant distress and problems in relationships, work, and overall functioning.

Personality disorders tend to be rigid and unhealthy ways of coping with life stresses and relating to others. While everyone has some "quirky" or eccentric traits, people with personality disorders exhibit symptoms severe enough to cause them distress and difficulty carrying out daily activities.

What are some Common Personality Disorders?

What Are some Common Personality Disorders?

Some of the more common personality disorders are explained below:

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What Causes Personality Disorders?

What Causes Personality Disorders?

Personality disorders likely arise from a combination of biological and social/environmental factors interacting over one's lifespan. Genetics may predispose someone to develop a particular style of thinking, feeling, and behaving. Life experiences then shape the expression of these traits.

Biological Factors

Genetics plays a strong role as personality disorders tend to run in families. The brain regions regulating emotions, self-control, and cognition may function differently in those with personality disorders. Neurochemical imbalances in serotonin, dopamine, and other neurotransmitters also likely contribute.

Psychodynamic Factors

Unconscious defense mechanisms and early childhood experiences with caregivers may contribute to disordered personality traits later in life. Those with narcissism or borderline disorder often faced invalidating or emotionally unavailable caregivers. They may not have learned to self-soothe distress as children.

Sociocultural Factors

Social reinforcement and conditioning of maladaptive traits can reinforce and perpetuate them. Negative peer experiences like bullying, teasing, rejection, traumatic experiences, or abuse may also play a role in the development of personality disorders.

Ultimately, both nature and nurture work together to shape personality and self-regulation abilities over the lifespan. The good news is this means proper treatment can rewire disrupted thinking and behavior patterns. Brains are malleable. People can heal from past pain and overcome disordered personality traits.

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What are Personality Disorder Clusters?

What Are Personality Disorder Clusters?

According to the DSM-5, personality disorders can be categorized into three clusters based on common characteristics.

Cluster A Personality Disorders

The first group, Cluster A, includes disorders marked by odd, eccentric thinking or behavior. This cluster contains Paranoid Personality Disorder, characterized by suspicion and mistrust of others. It also includes Schizoid Personality Disorder, marked by detachment from social relationships.

Finally, Cluster A contains Schizotypal Personality Disorder, characterized by unusual beliefs and perceptions.

Cluster B Personality Disorders

Cluster B contains dramatic, emotional, or erratic personality disorders. This cluster includes Antisocial Personality Disorder, marked by disregard for others. It also contains Borderline Personality Disorder, characterized by unstable moods and relationships.

Additionally, Cluster B includes Histrionic Personality Disorder, marked by excessive attention-seeking behaviors. Finally, this cluster contains Narcissistic Personality Disorder, characterized by grandiosity and lack of empathy.

Cluster C Personality Disorders

The third cluster, Cluster C, comprises anxious, fearful personality disorders. It includes Avoidant Personality Disorder, characterized by extreme social inhibition. It also contains Dependent Personality Disorder, marked by a need for others to take responsibility. Finally, Cluster C has Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Disorder, characterized by rigidity and perfectionism.

Types of Treatment for Personality Disorders

Types of Treatment for Personality Disorders

When treating a personality disorder, you’ll need to find a highly personalized, comprehensive treatment program consisting of evidence-based therapies, social support, and wellness activities.

Options should include:


During psychotherapy you will be working closely with licensed therapists in individual and group settings. Utilizing modalities like cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), dialectical behavioral therapy (DBT), schema therapy, and mentalization-based therapy. Psychotherapy can help you better understand your disorder, process emotions, improve relationships, reduce risky behaviors, and build coping skills.

Medication Management

When appropriate, psychiatrists prescribe medications proven helpful in managing personality disorder symptoms like mood instability, impulsivity, and chronic anger. Medication provides added mood stabilization and impulse control.

Mindfulness-Based Therapies

Activities like meditation, yoga, art therapy, and nature walks teach you to stay grounded in the present moment. This provides relief from the emotional storms of your inner world.

Trauma-Informed Care

A good program should be guided by a trauma-informed philosophy, recognizing the particular needs of the survivors of trauma.

Interpersonal Skills

Group therapy and coaching build assertiveness, cooperation, compromise, and conflict-resolution abilities.

Self-Care Routine

Learning new healthy habits around sleep, nutrition, exercise, leisure, productivity, spirituality, and hygiene to build structure is extremely important.

Peer Support

Support groups facilitate sharing experiences and help you get involved, take an active role in your recovery, helping yourself while also helping others. Learning that you are not alone on this journey and overcoming stigma.

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We Take a Compassionate Approach to Treat Personality Disorders

The Edge Treatment Center effectively helps you manage the symptoms of personality disorders. Our team is dedicated to partnering with you on your recovery journey. We offer comprehensive evaluations, individualized treatment plans, medication management, and a peaceful healing environment.

With proper treatment and support, you can learn to manage your symptoms, improve your relationships, and lead a stable, fulfilling life.


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